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Danger and Difference: The Stakes of Hebephilia

Abstract

The diagnostic category of hebephilia (the erotic preference for pubescent children) was suggested in 2008 for inclusion in the DSM-5. Immediately, a violent debate took place about whether this condition should be considered a disease or not, and the proposal to include hebephilia in the DSM-5 was rejected in 2012. In this paper I argue that the debate about the diagnostic validity of hebephilia was profoundly misguided. I first describe how the diagnosis of hebephilia plays a role in “sexually violent predator” (SVP) laws, which can preventively deprive “dangerous” people of their liberty if they are deemed mentally ill (for instance by suffering from hebephilia). I show that the legal requirement of mental illness for the application of SVP laws is supposed to serve two functions: to identify the most dangerous people, and to define them out of humanity by transforming them into quasi animals, thus safeguarding the constitutionality of SVP laws in a liberal context. I then argue that it fails to accomplish both tasks, and that the debate about hebephilia should have targeted this unsound legal requirement itself. Instead, because it was centered around the issue of diagnostic validity, the hebephilia debate rested on an implicit acceptance of the requirement of mental illness for the application of SVP laws.

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A forgotten Darwinian theory upends everything biologists thought about the female orgasm

Richard Prum spends most of his time studying birds. But this year, the award-winning evolutionary ornithologist has also produced an unexpected feminist manifesto.

In his new book, The Evolution of Beauty: How Darwin’s Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World—And Us, Prum, an evolutionary ornithologist at Yale, challenges the dominant narrative among evolutionary biologists: that beauty and sexual ornaments, such as a peacock’s plumage, a deer’s antlers, or the size of a man’s penis, evolve for adaptive reasons. Traditional theory holds that these ornaments are designed to display good genes, attract females, and help the species reproduce. It also tends to characterize the female orgasm as either a tool for genetic subterfuge, or an evolutionary mistake.

Per the adaptive theory, the male orgasm motivates men to seek out more opportunities for ejaculation, and subsequently, reproduction. The female orgasm, meanwhile, has remained something of a mystery. Some evolutionary biologists theorized that it evolved to literally “upsuck” the sperm of genetically superior men. (This would have let women raise their children with kind, reliable, not-so-hot partners, while passing on the superior genes of the men they mated with on the side.) The other dominant theory, championed by anthropologist Donald Symons in his 1979 book The Evolution of Human Sexuality, holds that the female orgasm, like male nipples, evolved as a byproduct of natural selection.

Prum posits a different—and coincidentally, far more appealing—explanation: that female sexual pleasure is in fact the central force behind the mating process. Basically, the female orgasm exists because it feels good, and women naturally sought out partners who could provide them with pleasurable feelings.

“The aesthetic proposal is that human female sexual pleasure and orgasm have evolved because females have preferred to mate, and remate, with males who stimulated their own sexual pleasure,” writes Prum, and that “females have thereby also selected indirectly for those genetic variations that contributed to the expansion of their own pleasure.” In other words, women had the ability to evaluate the experience of sex, and chose (naturally enough) to have sex with men who gave them orgasms. This led male mating behavior to coevolve with female desire. As male behavior evolved to meet women’s preferences, so did women’s capacity for sexual pleasure, becoming more complex, intense, and satisfying.

In this scenario, “female orgasm is not an adaptation to accomplish any extrinsic, naturally selected function,” writes Prum. “Rather, female sexual pleasure and orgasm are the evolutionary consequences of female desire and choice, and they are ends unto themselves.”

Prum puts forth several points to back up his theory about how pleasure influences evolution. For one thing, women’s orgasms are highly variable. If they are the result of indirect sexual selection, rather than direct natural selection, it makes sense that female orgasms would be more inconsistent.

This theory could also explain why human copulation, which lasts several minutes on average, is significantly longer than gorillas’ and chimpanzees’ seconds-long sex. Copulating for a longer period of time doesn’t increase the likelihood that the female will get pregnant—but humans may have evolved to have longer sexual encounters to enhance pleasure. The diversity of humans’ sex positions, compared to gorilla and chimpanzees’ consistent mounting from behind, also suggests that we’ve evolved toward the goal of servicing female clitoral stimulation and pleasure, says Prum.

Last, the pleasure theory completely aligns with the fact that female orgasm is unnecessary for procreation: “The female orgasm might have evolved to be so expansive and prodigious because it has no evolved function,” writes Prum. “It is sexual pleasure for its own sake, which has evolved purely as a consequence of women’s pursuit of pleasure.” The same cannot be said of male orgasm, which is limited in magnitude, frequency, and duration because of the link between orgasm and ejaculation.

Perhaps the most astounding element of Prum’s feminist evolutionary theories is that he’s not the first to think of them. In an under-cited passage of The Descent of Man, Charles Darwin, the revered father of evolutionary biology, proposed that sexual displays in animals evolve precisely because animals select for pretty things—or, in his words “through appreciation of the beautiful … and through the exertion of a choice.” This passage—ignored by centuries of biologists who fervently sidelined the influence of subjective pleasure—is the driving force behind Prum’s narrative.

For too long, evolutionary biologists have ignored the subjective experience of pleasure. With any luck, Prum’s book will expose the ways in which patriarchal thinking shapes scientific research—and help the public to understand that evolution is the result of women’s choice.

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Judge: Rape facilitates a natural society where men are protectors

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Botox Could Be the New Penis Wonder Drug

As long as guys are cool with having a needle stuck in their junk.

Most people think of Botox as a cosmetic drug that does just one thing—it temporarily reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles on the face by paralyzing the underlying muscles. As it turns out, Botox can do so much more: In recent years, doctors have found that it can be useful for treating a wide range of medical conditions, including chronic migraine headaches, an overactive bladder, excessive sweating, and even crossed eyes.

But that's not all. Botox, it turns out, also has the potential to help men who have concerns about the appearance and function of their penises. Here are three surprising things Botox can do down there.

It can increase flaccid penis size.

A recent survey of more than 4,000 US men found that guys' biggest complaint about their genitals was the length of their flaccid (non-erect) penises. More than one-quarter of respondents wanted theirs to be longer.

For a man who wishes he was more of a "shower," there aren't a whole lot of options on the market, short of expensive and risky surgical procedures and stretching devices that need to be worn several hours per day for months on end. Botox, however, could change that.

In a 2009 study, researchers used Botox to try and help guys who had a "hyperactive retraction reflex." In other words, these were men who experienced a lot more "shrinkage" (in the words of George Costanza) than others. Doctors made four injections around the base of the penis, with the goal of paralyzing the muscles responsible for the shrinkage reflex, known as the tunica dartos. And it worked.

Average flaccid size was about half an inch larger after the injections, and the guys didn't shrink as much in response to cold temperature. Most participants were happy with the outcome. However, it's important to note that erect size didn't change, and the effects were temporary—they lasted up to six months. So this isn't a one-shot deal—it's something you'd need to do at least a couple of times per year, just like if you were treating forehead wrinkles.

It might help guys last longer in bed.

Premature ejaculation is the most common sexual problem reported by men. There are tons of treatments out there for it already, including "delay sprays," Kegel exercises, and behavioral methods like the stop-start technique, but Botox might be another viable option in the near future.

In a 2014 study, researchers injected Botox into the bulbospongious muscle of male rats. This muscle sits at the base of the penis (see here) and is involved in ejaculation. Using Botox to paralyze this muscle can make sex last longer: For rats that received a placebo shot, their average time to ejaculation was six and a half minutes, compared to ten minutes for those that got a full dose of the drug.

There's a clinical trial underway right now to see if it works just as well in humans. We should know the results later this year, which will also tell us whether or not repeat doses are required, or if a single treatment might be enough for guys to learn more ejaculatory control.

It could help treat erectile dysfunction, too.

A new paper published in The Journal of Sexual Medicine argues that Botox could be a "game changer" when it comes to treating erectile dysfunction (ED). The thought here is that Botox could be used to paralyze the smooth muscles inside the erectile chambers of the penis. By relaxing these muscles, blood should be able to flow into the penis more easily.

A small study conducted in Egypt that was reported last year provided some initial support for this idea: Men with ED who received a Botox injection demonstrated improvements in penile blood flow. One patient, however, experienced priapism afterward—a prolonged erection that wouldn't go away on its own. This tells us that dosage is going to be very important: Too much muscle relaxation isn't a good thing.

Larger clinical trials should be underway soon, but in the meantime, it's important to highlight that any effects are going to be temporary and that once the Botox wears off, erectile difficulties will return because those muscles will start contracting and impeding blood flow again. Although it's not a permanent fix, Botox could be more appealing to some guys than sildenafil due to convenience: Rather than popping a pill every time they want to have sex, they could just get a couple of shots per year.

While scientists will undoubtedly continue to explore these and other effects of Botox on the penis, this doesn't necessarily mean patient demand will follow. Indeed, we don't know yet how many men are actually going to take advantage of these discoveries in the future. After all, if you want to experience any of the benefits of "bonetox," you have to be cool with someone sticking a needle in your junk.

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It is the secret dream of every Swedish or German woman to marry a black men, or at least have sex with a black man. Every smart young African man should migrate to Europe. Free money, nice house, good sex!

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US to destroy 2,600 tons of mustard gas stockpile

The United States army plans to start operating a $4.5 billion plant next week that will destroy the nation's largest remaining stockpile of mustard agent, complying with an international treaty that bans chemical weapons, officials said on Wednesday.

The largely automated plant at the military's Pueblo Chemical Depot in southern Colorado will begin destroying about 780,000 chemical-filled artillery shells soon after this weekend, said Greg Mohrman, site manager for the plant. He declined to be specific, citing security concerns and possible last-minute delays.

"We've practiced a lot," Mohrman told The Associated Press news agency. "Next week it gets real."

Robots will dismantle the shells, and the plant will use water and bacteria to neutralise the mustard agent, which can maim or kill by damaging skin, the eyes and airways. At full capacity, the facility can destroy an average of 500 shells a day operating around the clock.

It's expected to finish in mid-2020.

The plant will start slowly at first and likely won't reach full capacity until early next year, said Rick Holmes, project manager for the Bechtel Corp.-led team that designed and built it.

The depot has already destroyed 560 shells and bottles of mustard agent that were leaking or had other problems that made them unsuitable for the plant.

Those containers were placed in a sealed chamber, torn open with explosive charges and neutralised with chemicals. That system can only destroy four to six shells a day.

Irene Kornelly, chairwoman of a citizens advisory commission that Congress established as a liaison between the public and the plant operators, said her group had no remaining safety concerns.

The shells stored at the Pueblo depot contain a combined 2,600 tons of the chemical.

The army stores an additional 523 tons of mustard and deadly nerve agents at Blue Grass Army Depot in Kentucky. Blue Grass is expected to start destroying its weapons next year, finishing in 2023.

Mustard agent is a thick liquid, not a gas as commonly believed. It has no colour and almost no odour, but it got its name because impurities made early versions smell like mustard.

The US acquired 30,600 tons of mustard and nerve agents, but it says it never used them in war. Nearly 90 percent of its original stockpile has already been destroyed, mostly by incineration.

A 1925 treaty barred the use of chemical weapons after debilitating gas attacks in World War I, and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention called for eradicating them.

But international inspectors say Syria and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant group used them in 2014 and 2015. The United Nations Security Council met in closed session on Tuesday to consider whether to sanction Syria.

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The destruction of the Western World will not be achieved by suicide bombers but by arsonists. Suicide bombers are a waste of human resources because the dedication of just one suicide bomber could set hundreds of square kilometers of forests on fire. And the personal risk? A comfortable prison sentence of just a few years.

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You Should Never Ever Do This (But If Your Going To Heres How): Killing Yourself

rochesterinsomniac.com

In 2010 there were 38,364 documented suicides in America. This is roughly 1/10th of unsuccessful attempts (or parasuicides) committed. Though many of these are “cries for help” and are intentionally foiled by the person committing the act, some are genuinely unsuccessful. 25% of parasuicide victims will go on to success within a year. By far the most common and successful method of committing suicide is by gun, with 53-55% of successful suicides in the US using them. Second in popularity and success to suicide by gun is suicide by suffocation/hanging with roughly 22-25% using this method. Third to suffocation is poisoning, which includes intentional drug overdoses and consumption of toxic substances. About 18% use this method.

There are many other methods used, some uncommon due to circumstances such as the high amount of pain and discomfort experienced, or the fear associated with these methods. Some of these methods are downright unsuccessful, or are accidents occurring whilst crying for help.

These methods are as follow: Falling/jumping, cutting/piercing, drowning, self immolation, and transportation related suicides such as driving into walls, throwing yourself into a train, bus, car, etc. All methods, of course can be used in combination. ex: Slash your wrists, eat 80 Benadryl, douse yourself in gasoline, light a cigarette, and throw yourself off of an overpass in front of a Greyhound, semi, truck, Prius, etc. This will make a particularly newsworthy story, getting you the attention you sought in life for all of four days.

Suicide by Gun:

Chances of success increase when a shotgun is used in comparison to a rifle or handgun. This is due to the energy delivered on impact, as well as the scatter of projectiles, rather that one. However, a shotgun is harder to aim at more fatal points, such as the side and back of the head. Aiming at the head is of course a more fatal delivery point, as opposed to the chest or abdomen. By far the least successful method and delivery point being a handgun to the chest and/or abdomen. For a best possible result, use shotgun equipped with a solid lead slug, or double-aught (or larger) buckshot. Chances of success fall when using an unmaintained firearm, or old ammunition, as aged ammunition may not reach proper velocity or even discharge. The same effect applies to an unmaintained firearm. FMJ (full metal jacket rounds) also have a lesser chance of success as the round when expelled does not expand, creating a cleaner wound, and inflicting less damage on impact. A firearm is not suitable for a suicidal gesture, as the chances of success are much higher than other methods. Possible effects of failing: Disfigurement, paralysis, pain, infection, brain damage, damage to liver, spleen, diaphragm, and collapsed lungs.

The scene left behind, of course will not be pleasant for the person who finds you. Blood, bone and/or brain fragments spread over the area, facial disfigurement, and significant blood loss.

Suicide by Hanging:

There are two basic methods of hanging: simple suspension and drop. In simple suspension, death is most likely caused by asphyxiation due to the weight of the body being suspended in the noose. Death is also possible by arterial and/or vein compression, cutting off blood supply to the brain, or heart and lungs. In drop hanging, a platform is kicked out from under the person, and the person drops, instantly breaking the neck and rupturing the spinal cord, causing an almost instant death.

A key part of hanging is the knot. Tie a simple noose with some sturdy rope, such as hemp or manila. Test the noose, as it should tighten with applied pressure. The knot should sit behind your neck. The other end of the rope should be attached to something sturdy that will not move, or break, such as a hook, rafter, or railing. The knot should be tied securely to ensure that it doesn’t slip off of the surface. Strangulation can be achieved by sitting down, bending the knees, laying down, or kicking a platform (such as a chair) out from under you. Of course, it should be mentioned again that the rope should be sturdy, as the body will thrash in its death throes.

If the hanging is interrupted by discovery, rope breakage, or slippage, brain damage can occur. As with before, the scene left behind will not be pleasant for those who discover you. Often, the tongue will swell and protrude from the mouth; the face will often turn blue due to oxygen and blood deprivation. In all cases there will be defecation and urination.

Suicide by Drug Overdose:

When used as a sole means of suicide, drug overdose is seldom successful. The potency of street drugs commonly used (such as heroin) is commonly unreliable. MLD (minimum lethal dosage) is often hard to calculate and is somewhat unreliable due to outside factors such as weight, tolerance, and whether not a meal has been eaten recently. Contrary to popular belief, this is not a quick and painless method. It takes anywhere from 3 to 10 hours on average, depending on the drug taken. Several drugs cause convulsions before death. Even more drugs cause vomiting, fever, heart palpitations and pain. Drug overdose a risky and unreliable method.

Exit bag:

An exit bag is a suicide apparatus that brings about a relatively quick and painless death. Manufactured out of a large plastic bag with a draw cord or a Velcro strap for neck fastening and an inert gas such as helium or nitrogen; it brings a quick end to things, without unwanted pain or panic. Unconsciousness sets in within minutes and death sets in within twenty minutes. The result is a quick and painless death with a body that seems serine and at peace. Of course if the act is interrupted it can result in brain damage, which is why it should be carried out in an undisturbed setting. A suicide bag is sometimes used along side with a drug overdose, in order to ensure the desired result.

Suicide by Jumping:

Death by jumping is effective if done from a sufficient height, and while it is not common in the United States, it makes up a large amount of suicides in many cities and countries around the world, such as Hong Kong. A jump should be performed at a height of 150 feet or higher above land, or 250 feet or higher above water. Of course, care should be taken to land on your head, as it would result in a quicker death. It is key to avoid a foot first water landing, as this could result in nonfatal injuries. Jumping is a difficult way to commit suicide as the natural self preservation instinct is to not fall from a great height. This is hard to overcome. This method, of course results in a fairly gruesome corpse.

Suicide by Train:

Suicide by train is a rather uncommon and extremely gruesome method to end your life with. Death can be rather quick, but it can also be drawn out and extremely painful. If you aren’t decapitated, there is a chance that you could bounce off of the train, and find one of your limbs on the tracks. Injuries can range from broken bones to amputations, and severe brain damage. Suicide by train can be traumatic to many people such as train drivers, cleanup crews, and the family member/ loved one that will have to identify your body later on at the scene or in the morgue.

Wrist cutting:

Wrist cutting is mostly practiced as a method of self harm rather than suicide, though it occasionally leads to death due to unchecked bleeding that can lead to shock, and loss of consciousness. Often survivors find that they have limited use of their hands due to severed tendons and loss of nerve use and the ability to touch. Though it may seem like the only option or a quick way out of your problems, suicide is effectively stealing everything from your, as well as your loved one’s future. Often the reasoning behind it is faulty, selfish, and subjective. One should always look at every available option and make an educated decision when it comes to serious situations and decisions such as suicide. When you say you’re alone in something remember that there are over seven billion others, most living and functioning in worse condition than you.

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Men are our competitors. We want less of those around. Women are our prey. We want them poor and helpless.

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Head transplant has been successfully done on a monkey, maverick neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero claims

Maverick neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero has tested the procedure in experiments on monkeys and human cadavers, he told New Scientist.

Dr Canavero says that the success shows that his plan to transplant a human’s head onto a donor body is in place. He says that the procedure will be ready before the end of 2017 and could eventually become a way of treating complete paralysis.

“I would say we have plenty of data to go on,” Canavero told New Scientist. “It’s important that people stop thinking this is impossible. This is absolutely possible and we’re working towards it.”

The team behind the work has published videos and images showing a monkey with a transplanted head, as well as mice that are able to move their legs after having their spinal cords severed and then stuck back together.

Fusing the spinal cord of a person is going to be key to successfully transplanting a human head onto a donor body. The scientists claim that they have been able to do so by cleanly cutting the cord and using polyethylene glycol (PEG), which can be used to preserve cell membranes and helps the connection recover.

The monkey head transplant was carried out at Harbin Medical University in China, according to Dr Canavero. The monkey survived the procedure “without any neurological injury of whatever kind,” the surgeon said, but that it was killed 20 hours after the procedure for ethical reasons.

It isn’t the first time that a successful transplant has been carried out on a monkey. Head transplant pioneer Robert J White successfully carried out the procedure in 1970, on a monkey that initially responded well but died after nine days when the body rejected the head.

The newly-revealed success is likely to be an attempt to help generate funds for the ultimate aim of giving a head transplant to Valery Spriridonov, the Russian patient who has been chosen to be the first to undergo the procedure. Dr Canavero has said that he will need a huge amount of money to fund the team of surgeons and scientists involved, and that he intends to ask Mark Zuckerberg to help fund it.

While the scientists behind the procedure have published the pictures and the videos, they haven’t yet made any of their work available for critique from fellow scientists. That has led some to criticise the claims, arguing that it is instead “science through PR”, and an attempt to drum up publicity and distract people from “good science”.

Peers have criticised the maverick scientist for making the claims without allowing them to be reviewed or checked out. But Dr Canavero claims that he will be publishing details from the study in journals in the coming months.

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Marijuana Is a Natural Aphrodisiac—If You Don't Get Too Dang High

Cannabis is commonly considered a natural aphrodisiac, but is it possible that too much weed could get in the way of getting it on?

A recent query to Leafly, an online encyclopedia of cannabis strains, came from a woman lamenting that her boyfriend couldn't get an erection after consuming a 120-milligram edible one night, and a couple joints the next.

"When we went to have sex everything was heated but he couldn't get an erection. He said he was into it, which I'm inclined to believe, but said he couldn't really feel his nether regions, which is what we attributed the difficulty to," the query read.

In response, Leafly's Ashley Manta, a sexuality educator, hypothesized that the problem came from the edibles. While most budtenders recommend 20 to 35 milligrams for even those with a high tolerance, 120 milligrams could definitely impair functioning for well over 12 hours.

"As with any mood altering substance you can overdose," Betty Dodson, PhD, sexologist and author, told Motherboard. The worst that can happen with a cannabis overdose is you get too tired and fall asleep instead of having sex, she said. Generally though, cannabis can be very positive for sex. "When we smoke marijuana it slows down our brain waves. When it comes to sex, you want to get out of your head and into your body and marijuana really supports that transition." Your taste buds are enhanced, motor senses enhanced, skin more sensitive, and sex organs more easily engorged, Dodson added.

But again, it all depends on dose.

Cannabis has been shown in some scenarios to lower testosterone levels, and lower testosterone may lead to erectile dysfunction. This happens when THC blocks the release of GnRH, a hormone critical for successful reproductive function. Cannabis has also been studied in regard to issues with orgasming, either because of premature ejaculation or the inability to achieve an orgasm. That same study also found that it can inhibit certain receptors in the penis' erectile or cavernous tissue. Another study found marijuana might prevent the nervous system response that helps cause an erection.

However, the inability to get an erection can also be rooted in psychology. If a man is feeling anxious, his reaction to cannabis—and more specifically to whatever strain he's ingested—could either qualm or contribute to his anxiety, which could have negative or positive effects on his ability to relax and get an erection.

In this regard, cannabis can be positive for sex, as in legal states it is often recommended to patients who have anxiety. Other reports suggest that cannabis can help men with stamina in bed.

Still, cannabis has different effects on men and women.

"As many older [heterosexual] couples find, half an hour before intimate time, she should keep smoking and he should stop," author and endocannabinoid researcher Lex Pelger told Motherboard.

As with alcohol, the dosage is crucial in regard to how cannabis affects sexual performance, in this case, specifically in regard to men. If the boyfriend mentioned in the Leafly query had had a smaller edible, he might have been able to get an erection.

And yet, pot has still been helpful for many couples aiming to enhance their sex life. Foria, a weed lube for women, is applied directly to the vagina and aids with sensitivity during sex. Meanwhile, cannabis itself is associated with higher sensitivity and responsiveness to touch and other stimuli.

In one survey, 76 percent of men said cannabis increased their sexual pleasure; 68 percent reported it enhanced their orgasms; and for 39 percent it helped them last longer. Often, women are more likely to feel sexual satisfaction from cannabis, with 90 percent reporting in one study that it enhanced sex in various ways.

In any event, next time you get high before getting down in bed, remember: Your dose could influence your performance and satisfaction.

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World ABS is a scam. They purchased 1:200 tongkat ali extract from Sumatra Pasak Bumi many years ago, and then the owner, Ryan Davies, switched to a cheap substitute to maximize his profits. But he continues to suggest that he is a reseller of Sumatra Pasak Bumi products, even using Sumatra Pasak Bumi lab certificates. But what he sells certainly isn't 1:200 extract, and may not even be tongkat ali at all. Many scammers with absolutely no access to tongkat ali just sell tribulus terrestris powder.

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Danish research: Male testosterone levels fall after marriage

If you search for the word ‘gift’ in the Danish dictionary, you’ll come up with two meanings. The first is as an adjective indicating that an individual has entered into marriage. The second is a substance that is damaging or lethal to living organisms: a poison.

It may sound awfully familiar to some men (and ladies), and now there is scientific evidence that may shed some light on this Danish literary oddity.

Not surprisingly, men turn to testosterone boosters like butea superba.

Not so testy
A new Danish study from the city hospital Rigshospitalet has discovered that the testosterone levels of men plummet after they get married.

The research found that testosterone levels in men fell most dramatically during the period following them getting married, while the drop tended to be smallest following a period in which they went from being married to single.

“Testosterone plays a role in everything that defines a man,” Anna-Maria Andersson, the head of research at the hormone lab at Rigshospitalet’s Department for Growth and Reproduction and co-author of the study, told Videnskab.dk.

“It’s quite amusing and it’s a good picture of how much our hormones are impacted by how we live. The body acclimatises to the situation we find ourselves in.”

Ode to oxytocin
It is yet unknown what leads to the drop in testosterone from a biological standpoint, but one hypothesis is that the hormone oxytocin, which is released during loving caresses and extended eye contact, plays a role.

The hypothesis is that married men release more oxytocin than single men, and that impacts the levels of testosterone.

“It’s speculation and we haven’t had the possibility to measure the oxytocin levels in this study, but it makes sense that it can play a part when looking at it from an evolutionary perspective,” said Andersson.

“It is of course necessary for the man to defend his wife and children, so you still need testosterone. But it is also necessary to modify your behaviour towards those you need to protect, and it’s important to relate to your family and create social bonds.”

Another concept is that the testosterone levels of men change because they are exposed to female pheromones when living with their wives.

Andersson said that for now the research would stand as an observation – one that many men and women are perhaps already aware of.

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Terrorists are developing a new tactics. Instead of killing victims, they just castrate them, and let them live on. Planned for Swedish and Norwegian men. Perpetrators will just get 6 months in jail.

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